Design and accuracy are very important while building a steel structure. Steel structure design must describe the size and dimension of each steel element to be used. In this phase, every complex measurement can be easily calculated and accuracy can be guaranteed. It is easier and more economical to identify and rectify errors in the design stage itself. Even a very small mistake in a steel structure design can lead to a fatal disaster leading to injury and property destruction.
Designing is the most critical phase of constructing any structure. External loads and forces need to be calculated. Older designs were entirely manual and there was always a small possibility of error among steel members. Due to the availability of computer software for this purpose, the possibility of making errors has been reduced. Steel structure design provides information and knowledge in the form of templates that can be used to automate the various difficulties occurring during project maintenance. Once connections are set up, they must be accurate as it is difficult to keep making changes. AutoCAD is primarily used for design phase and this helps to accurately evaluate details.
There are three methods of steel structure design widely used:
*Plastic design considers the final structure and its load. The term plastic denotes that the strength of steel is in the plastic range. This type of steel structure design is fast and rational. Sections needed for this approach are smaller in size. Statically undefined framed structures use this approach for design and analysis.
*Elastic design is the traditional steel structure design used. The design is made according to BS 449: plastic theory. This theory analyses sections and structures such that the tolerable stresses are prevented from increasing.
*Limit sate design needs to take into account uncertainties caused due to structural dimensions plus behavior, material strength and loading. This affects the safety and reliability of the structure. The safety of the design is to be assessed. The uncertainties associated with a steel structure make its design difficult. The designer has to confirm the failures and risks involved regardless of the uncertainties.
After the design has been completed, it is sent to the builders to calculate the material required for the particular construction. Wastage of materials is not affordable. Hence, the design needs to be very particular about what is needed and how much is needed to prevent any future problems.